Assessing the business performance effects of receiving publicly-funded science, research and innovation grants – Research Paper No 61( Revised )
Published: 6 September 2017
UK Research Councils spend around £1.7bn pa on supporting research. Here, we provide the first comprehensive assessment of these research grants on the performance of UK firms. Using data on funding and partnership from Gateway to Research on all funded projects by the UK Research Councils over the 2004 to 2016 period and business performance data from the Business Structures Database we have applied a difference-in-differences propensity score matching technique to evaluate the performance of UK firms who participated in publicly-funded research projects. Our analysis suggests five key conclusions. First, firms who participated in research projects funded by UK research councils grew their turnover and employment 5.8-6.0 per cent faster in the three years after the project, and 22.5-28.0 per cent faster in the six years after the project, than similar firms which did not receive support. Second, the impact of participating in projects is larger for firms in high-tech manufacturing and knowledge intensive services. Third, we find evidence that the impact of participating in projects is larger for small firms and those with lower starting productivity (turnover per employee). Growth impacts on firms in the top quartile of the productivity (turnover per employee) distribution are small. Fourth, support relevant to businesses is provided largely by EPSRC and Innovate UK. Participation in projects funded by both organisation increases both employment and turnover growth in the short and medium terms with only marginal differences in their impact. Fifth, the effects of grants vary depending on the size of the project. Participating in projects involving small and very large grants have smaller growth effects than medium-sized support packages. Our results have implications for the extent and targeting of future Research Council funding.
Our analysis is subject to a number of caveats. First, data limitations mean that we measure economic impacts using turnover and employment data rather than value added per worker or hour worked. Secondly, at this point we only consider the direct impacts on firms. Spillovers or multiplier effects may significantly enlarge these effects; displacement may reduce them. Both will be considered in a future study. Thirdly, data linking and the timing of some grant awards in recent years mean we are able to consider growth effects for only around two-thirds of firms which participated in publicly funded science and innovation projects.
Innovation and Exporting
Accessibility, utility and learning effects in university-business collaboration. Research Paper No 57.
UK government reports have emphasised the potential role of universities in driving localised economic development. There may be a utility-accessibility trade-off, however, between the accessibility of local university knowledge and its ‘fit’ with the specific needs of local firms. Here, using data from UK Innovation Surveys (UKIS) covering the period 2004 to 2012, we examine this trade-off and how it differs for firms of different sizes. Our analysis suggests four main empirical results. First, we find support for the predicted inverted-U shape relationship between the distance between collaborators and the innovation benefits. Second, we find evidence, in accord with the utility/accessibility trade-off, that local university collaboration benefits only small and medium firms. Third, we find that learning effects from previous collaborations with customers, suppliers etc. increase the probability of collaborative activity. Fourth, we find strong evidence of the persistence of university collaborations. Our results re-affirm the evidence from other studies of the value of university collaboration and suggest the value of policy action to address market failures which arise in the formation of university-small business collaborations.
Published: 7 March 2017
The effectiveness of regional, national and EU support for innovation in the UK and Spain. Research Paper No 52
Innovation policy aims to stimulate innovation and hence firm-level productivity and growth. Here, we use data from the national innovation panel surveys in the UK and Spain over the 2004 to 2012 period to explore the effectiveness of regional, national and EU innovation support in promoting the extent of innovation activity, its novelty, and market success. Allowing for potential selection effects, our results suggest that regionalised support is most influential in increasing the probability of undertaking both process and organisational innovations. For both the UK and Spain, national innovation support is associated with a higher probability of product or service innovation, and the degree of novelty of product or service innovations. In terms of innovation success (sales) we see a rather different pattern in the UK and Spain. In the UK only regionalised support is associated with increased innovative sales. In Spain, innovative sales are influenced by both regional, national and EU support measures. Our results suggest that moves towards more centralised innovation policy in the UK since 2012 may reinforce a focus on leading edge, novel product and service innovation while placing less emphasis on broadly based process and organizational innovation.
Published: 9 January 2017
SMEs which have a track record of innovation are more likely to export, export successfully and generate growth from exporting than non-innovating firms. This paper explores the existing evidence.
Published: 5 April 2013
Enterprise Research Centre
Warwick Business School
University of Warwick
Coventry CV4 7AL
Enterprise Research Centre
Aston Business School
Birmingham B1 7ET
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